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The Sky's The Limit: Workbook for Canadian Private Pilots, 2020 Edition

Updates, Amendments and Revisions

Due to a printing error, the answers for questions 2-34 to 2-70 are missing. Here are the answers to these questions:

2-34. For an aircraft on the ground, the effect of a broken or disconnected magneto ground wire will be that when the ³OFF² position is selected on the mags, the engine will continue to run. In the case of a parked aircraft having a ³live² magneto, the aircraft propeller(s) should be clearly placarded with a warning stating ³live magneto². [Ref: TSTL s. 2.07]
2-35. SHIELDING aircraft ignition systems is when wire braids are wrapped around the spark plug leads and a steel shell surrounds the spark plug itself. The purpose of shielding the ignition system is to contain the radiated energy from the electrical currents within the ignition system and thus prevent radio disruption. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.07]
2-36. Four functions of an aircraft lubrication system are COOLING, SEALING, LUBRICATION and CLEANING. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-37. Aircraft oils are graded by the physical property of VISCOSITY. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-38. Light aircraft reciprocating engines employ either FORCE FEED or SPLASH lubrication. In Force Feed lubrication, oil is sprayed over the engine components under pressure. In Splash Lubrication, oil is contained in a sump or reservoir and splashes over the engine as the crankshaft rotates. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-39. The role of MINERAL OIL in aircraft reciprocating engines is to provide additives that assist in breaking in a new or recently re-built engine. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-40. The OIL PRESSURE GAUGE and the OIL TEMPERATURE GAUGE are the primary engine instruments that should be closely monitored so as to determine proper engine lubrication. [Ref; TSTL s. 2.08]
2-41. Oil pressure that is fluctuating between normal and zero in an aircraft reciprocating engine would indicate a very low oil level in the engine, possibly caused by a faulty oil pump or by a significant leak. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-42. Where the oil pressure fails to come up within one minute of starting an aircraft reciprocating engine (or within the time indicated by the manufacturer), this indicates that the engine is not being provided with a film of oil at all between the working surfaces of the engine, and metal will be in direct contact with metal without any lubrication. The engine should be immediately shut down before permanent damage occurs. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-43. The purpose of OIL DILUTION is to assist starting in extremely cold weather, and it is accomplished by diluting oil with fuel, in a specified ratio or mix provided by the manufacturer, so as to make the oil less viscous. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.08]
2-44. The function of an aircraft carburettor is to mix the correct ratio of fuel to air by vaporizing fuel within a venturi. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-45. The aircraft carburetor vaporizes and mixes fuel and air in a ratio that is governed by WEIGHT. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-46. The mixture control governs the amount of fuel that is sent through the discharge nozzle in the venturi of the carburetor. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-47. The mixture control should be positioned in the FULL RICH position for take-off from a sea level airport. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-48. Carburetor ice can form within an aircraft carburetor whenever there is high relative humidity and temperatures are within the range -6° C to +32° C. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-49. A probable indication of carburetor ice is a drop in engine RPM for an aircraft having a fixed pitch propeller, or a drop in Manifold Pressure for an aircraft having a variable pitch propeller system. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-50. Where carburetor ice is suspected, the aircraft carburetor heat should be selected, which will direct hot air into the venturi of the carburetor, following which, gradually as the ice begins to melt, there will be an increase in engine RPM or manifold pressure. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-51. When the carburetor heat control has been applied, the fuel/air mixture becomes more rich. This is because the warm air entering the carburetor is less dense, thereby making the mixture richer since there will be a greater amount of fuel and lesser amount of air. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-52. A principal advantage of a fuel injected engine is that a carburetor is not necessary, and all of the problems associated with the carburetor such as carburetor icing can thereby be avoided. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-53. For aircraft having fuel injection systems, ALTERNATE INDUCTION AIR is used to provide an alternate source of intake air should the primary air intake experience a blockage. For such aircraft, there will be a selector or lever in the cockpit by which the alternate air can be manually selected. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.09]
2-54. Typically, light aircraft electrical systems are based on DC current. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-55. Following start-up of an aircraft engine, the source of electrical power for light aircraft electrical systems will be either the GENERATOR or the ALTERNATOR, which in turn are driven by energy from the engine crankshaft via belts. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-56. Turning off the MASTER SWITCH while in flight would have no effect on the engine, since the electrical power to supply the spark plugs derives from the magnetos, which are independent of the aircraft electrical system. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-57. In a light aircraft electrical system, the BUS BAR is a live, powered electrical bar from which other circuits such as radio, lights etc. draw their power. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-58. Electrical circuits in aircraft electrical systems are protected by FUSES or CIRCUIT BREAKERS. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-59. The AMMETER of an aircraft electrical system indicates the flow of electrical current, in amperes, from the alternator to the battery (+) or from the battery to the electrical system (-). [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-60. Prior to start of a light aircraft engine, the source of electrical energy to power electricals such as flaps, radios, lights etc. is from the BATTERY. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-61. The purpose of the VOLTAGE REGULATOR in an aircraft electrical system is to prevent the battery from being over-charged or the generator/alternator from overloading the electrical system. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.10]
2-62. The power output of a normally aspirated reciprocating aircraft engine diminishes with an increase in altitude because at higher altitudes, the air is less dense, and thus there will less oxygen available for combustion with higher altitudes and consequently less power output. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.11]
2-63. FORCED INDUCTION systems utilize the energy from the aircraft engine to increase the intake pressure of the fuel/air mixture to the aircraft engine, resulting in an increase of horsepower at higher altitudes. Forced induction is achieved with the use of a SUPERCHARGER which is a internally driven compressor, powered by the engine, that compress the fuel/air mixture after it leaves the carburetor. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.11]
2-64. The role of a TURBOCHARGER is to employ a specially designed impeller that is driven by exhaust gases on one side to increase the pressure of intake air on the other side. The benefit of the turbocharger is that compressed air will be available for the engine to utilize, thereby increasing horsepower at higher altitudes since intake air will be at a higher pressure. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.11]
2-65. Since a turbocharger is driven by escaping waste exhaust gases, the turbocharger uses far less energy than the supercharger, which is driven directly by the engine itself. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.11]
2-66. The WASTEGATE is the valve that is controlled by a governor and that controls whether the turbocharger is active or de-active. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.11]
2-67. A hazard associated with the presence of holes or cracks in an aircraft exhaust or manifold is the danger of escape of CARBON MONOXIDE into the aircraft cabin. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.12]
2-68. In respect of a CONSTANT FLOW oxygen system, oxygen from storage bottles is sent via a series of low pressure lines to various mask locations in the aircraft, providing a steady metered flow of oxygen to masks having a facepiece and expandible plastic bag. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.13]
2-69. The aircraft engine drives the vacuum pump, which in turn is used to power the flight instruments requiring suction operate (i.e. heading indicator, attitude indicator). [Ref: TSTL s. 2.16]
2-70. A basic hydraulic system in a light aircraft is used for braking systems. [Ref: TSTL s. 2.17]







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