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The Sky's The Limit: Workbook for Canadian Commercial Pilots, 2020 Edition

Updates, Amendments and Revisions

Due to a printing error, some answers have been omitted. Add the following to the answers at the end of S. 4:

4-44. When flying in the northern hemisphere, when accelerating on an east or west heading, the magnetic compass will falsely indicate to the north. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-45. When flying in the northern hemisphere, when decelerating on an east or west heading, the magnetic compass will falsely indicate to the south. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-46. COMPASS DEVIATION is when the magnetic compass gives inaccurate indications caused by disturbances in the electrical field near the compass. These electrical disturbances are caused by the electrical equipment and engine in the aircraft. Compass deviation is corrected by the process of SWINGING the compass, where small adjusting screws permit deviation errors to be minimized. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-47. COMPENSATION is the term that describes the process of adjusting the magnetic compass to minimize compass deviation. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-48. An aircraft magnetic compass is required to be swung at least on an annual basis. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-49. A COMPASS DEVIATION CARD shows units of compass deviation to apply for desired magnetic headings. To use the card, determine the deviation for a given desired magnetic heading, then add or subtract the deviation to obtain the corrected compass heading. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-50. The appropriate compass heading for a magnetic heading of 290° M is 291° CH. Since the compass deviation is +1° from the compass correction card, this would be added to the magnetic heading. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.06]
4-51. Of the standard flight instruments for a light training aeroplane, the gyroscopic instruments are the attitude indicator, heading indicator, and the turn coordinator or turn and bank indicator. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.07]
4-52. The two primary gyroscopic principles as employed in flight instruments are RIGIDITY IN SPACE and GYROSCOPIC PRECESSION. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.07]
4-53. According to the principle of gyroscopic precession, where a force is applied to the wheel of a gyroscope, the reaction to this force will be experienced in a direction that is 90° from the impact of the force, in the direction of the rotation of the wheel. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.07]
4-54. The power source that is typically used in light training aircraft to drive the attitude indicator and the heading indicator is that of AIR SUCTION. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.07]
4-55. The power source that is used typically in light training aircraft to drive the turn coordinator or the turn and bank indicator is ELECTRICAL ENERGY. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.07]
4-56. The attitude indicator based on a gyroscope that maintains a fixed, upright position in space. It is housed such that when the aircraft attitude changes, the attitude indicator will display any change in attitude based on the change in position of the aircraft as compared to the fixed position of the gyroscope. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.08]
4-57. The gyroscope of the attitude indicator keeps itself in the vertical position by using the principle of gyroscopic precession, such that if it tilts away from the vertical, restoring forces bring it back to position. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.08]
4-58. The heading indicator is based on a gyroscope having an axis of rotation that is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. As the aircraft turns, the case of the instrument contains gears that turn about the gyro and rotate an azimuth compass card that displays the aircraft heading. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.09]
4-59. The heading indicator, since it is based on a gyroscope, remains constant and is not easily displaced as is the magnetic compass. The heading indicator provides a more accurate means of steering even in rough air and precise turns can be made and stopped at any desired heading since the instrument responds without lag. The heading indicator is direct reading is more INTUITIVE: a turn to the right, for example, requires an increase in heading, and the heading sought will also be to the right on the card of the heading indicator. The magnetic compass is COUNTERINTUITIVE since directions decrease on the magnetic compass card to the right and increase to the left, thus, for a right turn, the heading sought will lie to the left on the card of the magnetic compass. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.09]
4-60. It is necessary to frequently re-set a gyroscopic heading indicator while in flight due to bearing friction within the gears of the instrument and due to the rotation of the Earth, both of which cause the heading indicator to precess. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.09]
4-61. The heading indicator should only be re-set to the magnetic compass while the aircraft is in straight and level, un-accelerated flight. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.09]
4-62. The INCLINOMETER of the turn coordinator or turn and bank indicator is a curved glass tube filled with fluid within which is placed a metal ball. The inclinometer indicates gravity, to the inside of the turn, and centrifugal force, to the outside of the turn, and by comparing the position of the ball in relation to the turn needle, the pilot can determine whether the aircraft is in balanced flight, is slipping or is skidding. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-63. The turn coordinator or turn and bank indicator, on light aircraft, contains a gyroscope that is electrically powered and that turns about an axis that is parallel to the lateral axis of the aircraft. The gyroscope is free to tilt about the aircraftıs longitudinal axis and is mechanically joined via linkages to a turn needle. The turn needle is calibrated to show the direction and rate of turn, where an aircraft is yawing about its normal axis. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-64. The turn coordinator displays rate of turn, turn coordination and roll rate. The turn and bank indicator displays rate of turn and turn coordination (not roll rate). This is because the axis of the turn and bank gyro is not canted thus the instrument does not respond directly to roll. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-65. Where a turn coordinator or turn and bank indicator displays both a centered turn needle and a centered ball, this indicates that the aircraft is not in a turn, the wings are level, and it is flying without a slip or skid. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-66. The indication of the turn coordinator at illustration ³A² of Fig. 3 shows a slipping turn, rate one, to the left. The aircraft can be brought into a coordinated, rate one left turn with the coordinated application of left rudder and aileron pressure to the right side of the control column (to reduce bank). [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-67. Where an aircraft is in a skidding turn, the rate of turn is too great for the angle of bank, and the centrifugal forces cause the ball of the inclinometer to be displaced to the outside of the turn. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]
4-68. A RATE ONE turn is a turn having a change of direction of 3° per second, or 2 minutes to complete 360° change in direction. It is indicated on the turn coordinator or turn and bank indicator by a turn unit on the face of the instrument. [Ref: TSTL s. 4.10]







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